Birds Nomenclature are done by classifying them in groups and the nomenclature (names) given to them. Scientific classification is based upon their body structure, geographic location they belong, plumage colour, certain colour of body part and a variety of other characteristics. Ornithologist across the world keeps reviewing them and sometimes there are multiple names of a single species.
Birds are arranged into groups such as ducks, geese, egrets, herons, loons, hawks and eagles, sunbirds, kingfishers, rollers and many more. Then their characteristics are added as pre-fix and one gets a NAME. Often these features on which a name is given are of male bird and female may differ completely.
Like Purple Sunbird is from basic family of Sunbird, males are purple in colour and hence the name, but females doesn’t have any spot of purple.
In some cases a very slight difference, like Lapwing with Red or Yellow colour around nose and eye separates them.
We even have cases where the pre-fixed feature doesn’t exists, like, Red-bellied Woodpecker does not have a red belly similarly black birds are not necessarily black in colour. Reason being ornithologist and scientists use scientific names in order to avoid any confusion but is difficult use in daily practice. Sparrow’s scientific name is Passeridae.
There are even birds who belong to a specific country and have presence otherwise, the naming in such cases stick to the local name by which its called since ages, like Koel, Myna etc. HINDI NAMES OF BIRDS
So, generally speaking, we have unique names given to all the existing birds and is easier to pronounce and spell. A little knowledge building and visuals, one can start identifying their names.
Humans have named the creatures since centuries and in modern times this process of nomenclature is called Taxonomy which is a formal biological classification.
Taxonomy of birds are done by order, family, genus, to species. Species name is the final nomenclature within this classification hierarchy. The scientific terminology is defined as follows:
Class:-> Order:-> Family:-> Genus:-> Species:-> eg. Indian Peafowl; Commonly known as Peacock; Hindi name मोर ; Scientific named as Pavo cristatus in Animal Kingdom of Class AVES and family of Pheasants.
There is an interesting fact about bird ‘Turkey’ which is called as so in India and was named after the country named ‘Turkey’. BUT in Turkey its called as Hindi, Portuguese call it Peru (a different country), Greeks call it Egyptian rooster and Egyptians a Greek bird. So this bird have all the names by country and each one on the basis of where it was first seen, had defined them by their country name however Meleagris the scientific name, though is difficult to remember.